How to Get Rust Out of a Sink

Rust stains in your sink may be brought on by standing water in which it comes from contact with metal items or by a split in the sink in which water seeps in. These red-orange stains may occur in a stainless steel or porcelain cast-iron sink, but you may use the same cleaning methods on any type of sink. Keep the sink dry if it’s not being used and avoid putting metal objects directly in or on the sink to stop new rust stains.

Dampen the rusty areas of the sink with water.

Sprinkle the rust stains using a light layer of baking soda. Apply several drops of vinegar into the boiling soda. Scrub the stains with a damp cloth or nonabrasive scrubbing sponge to remove the rust.

Wash the sink thoroughly to remove any cleaning residue.

Sprinkle a light layer of oxalic acid-based cleaning powder into some remaining rust stains. Wipe the stains with a damp cloth to remove them.

Wash the sink with water and dry it with a towel.

See related

Painting Over Tongue & Groove Paneling

Tongue-and-groove paneling consists of sections of timber held together by a locking mechanism. Paneled walls add visual interest, but they could also cause a room to appear dated. A coat of paint on your paneling can quickly brighten the space and give it a more contemporary feel. Painting above tongue-and-groove paneling isn’t difficult, but it takes a few more steps than you’d typically use when painting over a level surface like drywall.


Tongue-and-groove paneling typically has a finish coat of paint or sealer that protects the timber. This has to be roughed up with fine-grit sandpaper so that paint will adhere properly. When sanding the walls, then be certain you sand the surface of the timber completely. Wash your paneling using a damp cloth to remove sanding dust and other dirt. Gouges, holes and other flaws in the paneling may be filled with wood-filler and sanded smooth before priming and painting, however, the grooves of the tongue-and-groove paneling do not require filling. Wood shrinks and expands the varying humidity levels each season. Should you fill the flux with caulk or wood filler, the patches will crack and fall out, leaving an unsightly mess that will be hard to repair.


Painting tongue-and-groove paneling is more challenging than conventional drywall or plaster because where each bit of timber joins there are grooves that collect excess paint from the brush. When priming and painting the paneling, remove the excess paint that accumulates in the grooves of this timber with your paintbrush as you cut in along the edges of the room. When you’ve finished cutting in, start at the top of the wall and paint the flux. Load your brush gently and prevent drips by passing the tip of the brush above the flux, feathering the paint as you go. Follow by rolling the primer and paint on the wall in 3-foot sections, starting at the very top of one corner and working your way across the room. As you complete each 3-foot part, pause to feather any extra paint out of the grooves along with your own brush. Paint each part in columns, from ceiling to floor and bend each move marginally for a uniform finish.


Oil-based or pigmented shellac primers are excellent stain blockers and will block the resins in the wood that might bleed through a latex product. These primers will also adhere to surfaces that aren’t perfectly clean. Should you prefer to use a latex product, then pick a stain-blocking urethane-modified acrylic, which is a good stain-blocking primer that will block resins. The paneling, however, must be entirely clean before painting to ensure proper adhesion.


After the primer is dry, paint the walls with a standard 1/2-inch nap roller. A thick roller is not necessary as you’ll have painted the flux when cutting in. The excess paint a thicker remainder holds doesn’t remove the requirement to fill in the flux first. It will only gather in the grooves and cause runs and drips. Use either latex or oil-based goods, but pick a finish that suits the space. As an instance, tongue-and-groove paneling in a kitchen will need washing, so a flat paint isn’t perfect. A semigloss, however, may highlight blemishes from the wood. A satin finish provides a happy medium between a semigloss and a level finish. Apply at least 2 coats of paint for a uniform finish.

See related

How to Install Drainage in a Cinder Block Retaining Wall

A retaining wall prevents erosion, keeping a hill in area behind a house, or it may serve as a basement wall, depending on the property’s construction. Among the problems of constructing a retaining wall is ensuring that water drains away from it, otherwise the resultant moisture can damage the wall over time or leak into your home. Among the best methods to ensure adequate drainage is to set up a French drain behind the wall.

Examine the Land

Before you construct a cinder block retaining wall, then you must analyze the territory when it rains to view how the rainwater flows. This can help you to develop a water drainage drawing to ensure that water doesn’t slip behind the retaining wall, as well as ensuring a place for the water behind the wall to go after you put in the drain. For instance, after installing the drainage, then you may need to integrate runoff ditches to ensure the water goes where you want it to.

Excavate Behind the Wall

A cinder block retaining wall holds back a great deal of pressure. When it rains, the water in the hill behind the wall has to be drained away from the wall to keep the wall from being compromised. Before establishing the foundation for the cinder block wall, then ensure you have at least 1 to 2 feet of functioning room behind the wall that lets you put in a drain atop a gravel foundation.

Construct the Wall

Construct the wall to a flat base. Throughout construction, the local construction authority will occasionally inspect the wall to ensure it complies with local building codes. When the wall is totally built, you can lay in the needed drains and gravel. At either end of this wall, create a path for the water to flow into a drainage ditch or pipe, to transfer it away from the wall and house.

Gravel and Drain

Compact the bottom of the pit behind the retaining wall to have it flat. Pour 1- to 2-inch washed drainage stone into the hole and the foundation of this wall approximately 4 to 6 inches deep. Put a drainpipe with perforations that operate along its top over the gravel, using the solid side facing the bottom of the drainage ditch. The perforations in the top allow the water to seep into the pipe, which carries it off to both sides. After installing the perforated pipe, cover it and fill the hole using 3/4-inch washed gravel to within 6 inches of the surface of the wall. Insert dirt above the gravel for the rest 6 inches, and compact it lightly.

See related

Tips to Clean Fiberglass Tubs and Shower Stalls

Fiberglass tubs and shower stalls are created from a gel with tiny interwoven strings of glass that are molded right into a tough surface. This material is used in residential bathrooms as an attractive and economical alternative to conventional porcelain bathtubs and ceramic tile shower stalls. You can keep your fiberglass tubs and shower stalls in optimal shape by following a couple of maintenance tips.

Utilize Non-Abrasive Cleaners

Fiberglass isn’t quite as hard as porcelain or ceramic tile, therefore care has to be taken to prevent scratching the surface. Select non-abrasive cleaners such as dishwashing or liquid laundry detergents or an all-purpose household or toilet cleaner that’s made especially for cleaning fiberglass. Apply the product with a soft sponge or a non-abrasive brush or applicator made of nylon, polyester or polyethylene. Abrasive cleaners, scrubbers and sponges will degrade fiberglass and lead to staining and discoloration.

Remove Soap Scum and Stains

For hard water stains, soap scum and iron deposits, then use a mineral deposits removal merchandise such as Lime-A-Way, CLR or Zud. For places with black grime or algae, then use a combination of equal parts of household bleach and water. Saturate the stained areas and permit the cleanser to sit down for a hour or so before thoroughly rinsing the unit with cold water. Avoid the temptation to use scouring powders, pads or steel wool; instead, use a non-abrasive sponge or microfiber cloth to gently rub stubborn stains.

Strive Herbal Alternatives

Baking soda, hydrogen peroxide and vinegar may be used in place of chemical products. Combine 1 part hydrogen peroxide with 2 parts baking soda to produce a paste. Apply the glue with a sponge or a rubber brush and then leave it around for at least a half-hour to remove stains. For soap scum removal, mix white vinegar with equal parts of warm water and apply with a spray bottle or a sponge. Leave it on for 15 minutes and wipe away with a dry sponge or cloth.

State the Surface

Some fiberglass bathtub and shower manufacturers recommend conditioning the surface twice a year using a automotive polishing compound or cream wax. To buff a scratched or dulled surface and then restore a lustrous shine to a bathtub or shower stall, then apply a light coat of polish or wax with a clean cotton cloth and gently rub into the surface. Avoid treating the underside or bottom of this unit to prevent slips and falls. Check your manufacturer’s care guide before using wax products in your own unit.

See related

Do I Need Bone Meal to Fertilize Fruit Trees?

Despite the fact that you’ll find bone meal in most garden supply stores, you won’t necessarily require this natural fertilizer for optimum fruit tree growth and creation. Bone meal provides phosphorus to fruit trees. As one of the three important macronutrients for crops, phosphorus promotes early growth, root formation and fruit development. But many soils have a sufficient amount of potassium, therefore adding bone meal might be a waste of money.

Nutrients in Bone Meal

All fertilizer package labels have a three-number fluid level printed on them. The typical fertilizer grade for bone meal is 3-15-0. This implies bone meal comprises about 3 percent nitrogen, 15 percent phosphorus and no potassium. When used as a fertilizer, bone meal discharges the phosphorus and the small amount of nitrogen over a one- to 12-month period.

Fruit Tree Nutrient Requirements

Fruit trees are heavy metals of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. When the soil is deficient in one of these nutrients, it is possible to correct the deficiency by employing an appropriate fertilizer. You’ll need to apply a fertilizer with a high nitrogen content each year since many soils are deficient in nitrogen. Conversely, you probably wo not need to use a fertilizer like bone meal to give phosphorus because most soils contain sufficient potassium for fruit trees.

Recognizing a Phosphorus Deficiency

To determine if the soil is deficient in phosphorus, collect soil samples in the region around the tree. Utilize a home soil test kit to test the soil samples for phosphorus content. If a test isn’t available, look for signs of phosphorus deficiency in the fruit tree. You’ll see that a tree deficient in phosphorus grows slower than anticipated. The old leaves could have a lighter, abnormal color and the tree may produce few blooms.

Utilizing Bone Meal for a Fertilizer

In case a phosphorus deficiency is detected from the soil, you may use bone meal as a fertilizer for some soils. But before you apply bone meal, it’s important that you know the pH of the ground. Bone meal is alkaline and should just be applied to soil with a pH of over 7 days. Do not apply to soils with a pH greater than 7 since the phosphorus won’t be available to the trees. Utilize a home soil test kit or pH meter to find the soil pH of their soil near the tree. If the pH is less than 7, apply bone meal once in the time of planting. Place 3 pounds of bone meal in the base of each planting hole. Mix the Sea supper using a handful of soil and plant.

Other Sources of Phosphorus

Many other fertilizers also supplies potassium to fruit trees. The compound fertilizer superphosphate using a fertilizer grade of 0-45-0 provides a massive amount of phosphorus. Place 1 pound of superphosphate in the base of the planting hole before planting the tree. Balanced fertilizers, like those with a grade of 20-20-20, supply ample amounts of potassium and nitrogen in addition to phosphorus. Since many fruit trees require an application of nitrogen every year, you may use a balanced fertilizer to likewise provide phosphorus. Do not place the balanced fertilizer in the planting hole. Rather, spread the fertilizer within an 18- to 24-inch circle around the tree back in August or early September and water the tree as usual. Apply about 2 pounds of this balanced fertilizer to your little fruit tree and up to 5 pounds for a large, mature tree every year.

See related

I Have a Lemon Tree That Is Two Years Old and Has Never Bloomed; Is There Something Wrong?

Lemon trees (Citrus limon) are self-pollinating citrus plants which may be grown year-round. Lemons, like other citrus trees, typically keep a complete crop set within 3 decades of planting. When you purchase a orange tree in a pot, then it has generally been growing for approximately 1 to 2 decades, but this pre-planting age doesn’t count towards the tree official age. If your tree has been in the ground for many years and isn’t thriving, then there are different chances to investigate like an environmental imbalance or disease.

Complete Maturity

It is possible that a 2-year-old lemon tree hasn’t reached maturity. The average time from putting a citrus tree until plants can be picked is just 1 to 2 decades, but it may be as long as 3 years to 4 years depending on individual growth patterns. Trees will not bloom until they reach maturity, because it’s the initial step in reproduction. Blooms also just emerge on a schedule throughout the year. They’re generally most abundant in the spring, but small flourishes can happen in fall and summer.

Environmental Factors

Lemon trees have a very low cold tolerance. If the tree is situated in the improper hardiness zone, it might never bloom. Citrus trees grow best in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 10. Late frosts, drought or intense heat may kill young blooms and lead them to fall off or shrivel until the tree has a chance to develop the fruit. In this case, the tree might bloom, but you never see the blossoms. Improper water balance may also cause a delay in or lack of blooming. Lemon trees like routine water with quick drainage, so a very rainy season may cause problems.

Soil Requirements

Lemons require just the right balance of nutrients within their soil. A lack of blooms can be a sign that your tree is suffering from mineral deficiencies. Spread 2 tablespoons of nitrogen under a tree less than 4 years old, indicates the University of California Riverside Research Facility. Duplicate this application three to four times throughout the year, followed by a freezer. Double the amount to 4 tablespoons from the next year of treatment, irrespective of age. Together with nutrient worries, the pH level may also affect a tree’s overall wellness. Citrus trees prefer soils with a slightly acidic to neutral pH of between 6.0 and 7.5.

Rootstock Compatibility

If all else appears normal, it is possible that your lemon tree has a bad graft. Like many other vegetables, lemon trees are most frequently the product of grafting to keep them true to cultivar type. This process requires a scion, a piece of small branch from a donor tree, and attaches it to the roots and trunk of another tree, the rootstock. There’s usually some benefit the rootstock offers the scion, such as faster growth or an alteration in tree size. There are a few combinations of lemon cultivar rootstock and scion which are incompatible in addition to a few viruses that may attack a graft and cause it to fail. A physical malformation is the defining symptom of a bad graft. The area location between the scion and rootstock might split, crack, bump or appear otherwise abnormal. In this case, there’s very little you can do besides buy a new tree.

See related

The way to Add Soil to My Perennial Garden

An established garden benefits from the inclusion of fresh dirt, particularly in the kind of compost, on a regular basis. Compost improves water retention in sandy soil and decreases soil compaction in clay soil, enhancing the garden. Simply adding topsoil does little to improve the dirt in a perennial garden, but it’s helpful for replacing dirt lost through erosion and to raise the soil level.

Benefits of Topdressing

The simplest way to add soil or compost into a perennial garden is by way of topdressing, which involves spreading a thin layer of the material throughout the garden bed surface. With that procedure, no need is to incorporate the new dirt or compost to the current soil, a process which can disturb plants’ roots. Rain and earthworms take the new material deeper into the garden throughout the course of the growing season. Regularly adding compost in this manner helps improve the garden total quality by stabilizing the soil’s pH level and helping the dirt maintain nutrients.

Topdressing Procedure

When topdressing your perennial garden with soil or compost, apply a 1- to 2-inch-thick layer of the material throughout the garden’s soil surface however involving the plants. The job requires 8 to 16 cubic feet of compost per 100 square feet of garden area, and also the number of cubic feet of topsoil needed may fluctuate. Compost supplies nutrients in addition to other natural material, and a annual application of it in spring can remove the need for supplementary fertilizers in a perennial garden. Perennial plants which require a lot of fertilizer may benefit from a summer feeding in addition to the spring compost application. It can be supplied with a fibrous, all-purpose plant food with an nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ratio of 24-8-16. Mix 1 tbsp fertilizer per 1 gallon of water for every 10 square foot of dirt surface at the perennial garden, and use the mix to water the dirt of just the perennials that need extra fertilizer.

Addition of a Larger Amount

If topdressing does not add enough fresh dirt to the perennial bed, even more extreme measures are required. Taking away the perennials before adding soil is imperative to avoid burying the plants. Fall is the best time for raising perennials out of the garden to add dirt, even though it can be carried out in spring if necessary. Work fast to add the desired amount of dirt prior to the plants’ roots dry. An option is to function in stages by lifting a few plants from the bed, then adding dirt, and then replanting those perennials prior to moving into a different part of the garden to repeat the process. Water perennials’ dirt well after replanting, and continue watering it as needed to keep it moist for the next few weeks.

Soil and Compost Selection

When adding soil or compost into your perennial garden, then the material you use is equally as important as how you apply it into the garden. Use only adult compost, which can be compost which has thoroughly decomposed. Partially decomposed compost which isn’t well-aged has a greater level of soluble salts than adult compost and may harm garden plants. Well-aged compost also includes fewer weed seeds. When selecting new dirt, choose a dirt mixture described as “topsoil” or “garden dirt.” Bagged mixes typically contain high levels of organic matter.

See related

Garden Care Tips on How to Kill Crabgrass Without Killing Plants

Crabgrass is an annual grass that invades flower beds and lawns, but a range of methods provide control without harming plants. Also called summer grass, crowfoot grass and watergrass, crabgrass varieties include smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) and large or hairy crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum). Controlling crabgrass involves removing or spraying the plants and preventing crabgrass seeds from sprouting.

Spreading Mulches

Mulches effectively control crabgrass in garden beds. Crabgrass is shallow rooted and easy to pull up, but crabgrass seeds in the soil sprout year after year. Covering the soil with a mulch blocks light in the seeds and prevents them from invading. Remove crabgrass plants, and a spread a 2- to 3-inch layer of fine mulch or a 3- to 6-inch layer of coarse mulch, avoiding plant stems. Fine mulches contain leaf mold, garden compost and well-rotted manure. Wood chips, shredded bark and straw are a few examples of coarse mulches. Rake the mulch surface to disturb any stray crabgrass seedlings, or pull them out. Top up the mulch layer since it thins out, which is usually annually or semi-annually.

Using Herbicides

Selective herbicides control crabgrass without harming plants. Fluazifop and other selective herbicides control grasses but do not affect broad-leaved plants. Lightly spray a ready-to-use product containing 0.48 percent fluazifop-p-butyl over the middle of the crabgrass plants when they’re actively growing. Spray the plants after seven weeks and repeat as often as required. Don’t spray crabgrass herbicides near ornamental grasses. Pre-emergent herbicides like pendimethalin avoid crabgrass seeds from sprouting. Spread ready-to-use granules containing 1.71 percent pendimethalin at a speed of 4 oz per 125 square foot over the bare soil in early spring. Water the granules if it does not rain within 48 hours. Pre-emergent herbicides produce a chemical barrier on the soil surface, so don’t disturb the soil because this makes them less successful. Don’t sow seeds for four months and then do not plant sprigs for five months later using pre-emergent herbicides because they affect most other seeds and very young plants.

Solarizing the Soil

Soil solarization commands crabgrass plants and seeds to a depth of 6 inches or heavier. This process works well when you’re preparing a crabgrass infested area for a garden. Soil solarization involves covering bare soil in transparent plastic, which heats up the soil as deep as 18 inches below the surface, making conditions where weeds and other pests can’t survive. Dig a trench 4 to 6 inches deep across the crabgrass-infested area, and water the soil until it’s moist to 12 inches deep. Place a plastic sheet 1 to 4 millimeters thick over the ground and repair the borders in the trenches by covering them with soil. Solarization controls crabgrass very best when the weather is clear and hot for four to six weeks, like over the summertime.

Controlling Crabgrass in Lawns

Crabgrass is a frequent weed in lawns, but you can control it without harming turfgrass. Scatter pre-emergent herbicide granules to prevent crabgrass seeds encased in spring, and mow, irrigate and fertilize your lawn frequently so the turfgrass grows strongly and out-competes crabgrass. Be sure to read the herbicide label to make sure the product does not injure the turfgrass you’re growing. Set your mower blades at the correct height to the grass type, like 1 to 1 1/2 ins for bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Irrigate your lawn weekly during dry weather so the soil is continually moist but never soaked, and feed it frequently. For example, employ a 10-0-5 lawn feed at a rate of 8 ounces per 100 square foot six times over the growing season, or use the product based on the directions on the label. Bermudagrass rises in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 through 10.

See related

How to Get Rid of Weeds Out Of Basalt Driveways

Basalt is occasionally utilized in driveways in the form of crushed rock or pavers. Its dark, durable and dense, rich shade provides a attractive driveway — but it also means that dinosaurs stand out sharply against the dark rock. You may prefer methods — particularly if the compounds run off down the drive and into a yard or plants although weeds will be killed by chemical controls. Hand-pulling can be powerful, but it can be time-consuming if you’ve got lot of weeds. When the weeds are prevalent, try something you might already have in your kitchen cupboard: vinegar or salt. Salt ruins the dirt for any plants. It is a fantastic method to use on driveways, but make sure you don’t receive any of the salty or salt water on neighboring plants. Vinegar will not ruin dirt, but plants will be killed by it use the very same precautions when spraying vinegar — a still day with no wind is best so the spray doesn’t drift.

Salt for Weeds

Pour into a bowl.

Scoop out the salt using a spoon, and then sprinkle it directly.

The plants that are succulent using some water. The weeds will dry out , killing them.

Pull up the weeds that are dead and eliminate them, or sweep them away.

Hot Salty Water

Bring 2 cups of water to a boil.

Add 1 cup of salt.

Pour the boiling water on the weeds, taking care to protect your hands, and skin. Salt and the hot water both will work to kill the weeds.

Eliminate by sweeping them off or pulling up them of the driveway.

Vinegar for Weeds

White or apple cider vinegar into a spray bottle. Do this if there isn’t any rain forecast for 48 hours.

Spray the vinegar onto the middle of each pot, or onto the blossom if it has not yet produced seeds.

Spray the foundation of each pot using the vinegar.

Pull up or sweep away the weed when it is dead.

See related

Majestic Gas Stove Troubleshooting

A Majestic gas cooker provides an effective option if you want to heat a room in your home without turning on a heating apparatus. The brand offers a variety of models. But whatever kind of Majestic cooker you have, you might encounter difficulties from time to time, for example even the ignitor or odd smells during surgery. Even though you can resolve some of these issues yourself, don’t be afraid to telephone a service technician that is trained if you suspect problems beyond your skill level to troubleshoot and fix.

Pilot and Ignitor

Locate the pilot gathering for your version dependent on the operator’s manual. After the stove’s spark ignitor won’t produce a pilot flame, the electrode of the pilot could be faulty or misaligned. Eliminate the glass door before lighting the pilot. Check whether the control knob is set to the”Pilot” position. Hold a lighted match over the pilot orifice; turn it off and push the red ignitor button to engage the ignitor, when it lights. Measure the distance to confirm the gap between the electrode and pilot is 1/8 inch, which allows room to get a spark, if the pilot fails to light via the ignitor.

Defective Ignitor

If the ignitor itself is faulty, your cooker may fail to start. Put the control knob to the”Pilot” position, push it in all of the way in and hold it to test for a spark at the ignitor toward the pilot. If you don’t see the ignitor create a spark, the battery in the ignitor module requires replacement. Replace the whole ignitor module box, if the spark ignitor does not light after changing the battery.

Pilot Fails to Remain On

A thermocouple unit may keep the pilot light. Analyze it to confirm it is on the back of the valve. Air could be if the thermocouple is connected. Speak to your merchant because the gas line has to be bled with a repair expert to remove the air. If it does not have a sufficient gas distribution, your cooker may fail to remain on. Check for a complete tank, as important. The shutoff valve is available by verifying the red handle is directly in line with the gas line.

Burner Fails to Come On

After the stove pilot lights nice but the burner won’t light, the burner orifice might be clogged. Insert and remove a pipe cleaner in the orifice to clean it. The burner can neglect to light if the width of the burner orifice is too little, which keeps it from working. Speak with your dealer whether the diameter is a issue to find out if needed and replace. Confirm that the gas pressure for your cooker is low — contact the local gas company to have your gas link is examined by an experienced service person.

Strange Smells Throughout Operation

When your stove gives off odors it is generally a result of residue burn-off due to the production procedure. Open a window or vent the room until the smell is gone, and turn the cooker on high. It generally takes about six hours of constant use to eliminate the smell. Your cooker might also give off smells if it is burning vapors from paint, glue, hairspray, air fresheners or other household things in the air of the room. Adequately ventilate the room and do not use odor-producing goods while the cooker is on. If you smell gas when it’s turned off or once the oven is in operation, you might have a gas flow. Contact your local gas company immediately to locate and fix any leaks.

See related